- New sink class
- Backend convenience classes
- Naming and placing the new sink
cygnus-ngsi allows for NGSI context data persistence in certain storages by means of Flume sinks. As long as the current collection of sinks could be limited for your purposes, you can add your own sinks regarding a persistence technology of your choice and become an official
This document tries to guide you on the development of such alternative sinks, by giving you guidelines about how to write the sink code, but also how the different classes must be called, the backends that can be used, etc.
NGSISink is the base class all the sinks within
cygnus-ngsi extend. It is an abstract class which extends from
CygnusSink class at
cygnus-common (which, by its side, extends Flume's native
NGSISink provides most of the logic required by any NGSI-like sink:
- Configuration of parameters common to all the sinks.
- Starting and stopping the sink.
- Flume events consumption in a batch-like approach, including opening, committing and closing of Flume transactions.
- Counters for statistics (in fact, this feature is given by
You find this class at the following path:
All the sinks extending
NGSISink inherit the following configuration parameters:
|batch_size||no||1||Number of events accumulated before persistence.|
|batch_timeout||no||30||Number of seconds the batch will be building before it is persisted as it is.|
|batch_ttl||no||10||Number of retries when a batch cannot be persisted. Use
|data_model||no||dm-by-entity||Accepted values: dm-by-service, dm-by-service-path, dm-by-entity, dm-by-entity-type and
|enable_grouping||no||false||Accepted values: true or false.|
|enable_lowercase||no||false||Accepted values: true or false.|
These parameters are read (and defaulted, when required) in the
The most important part of
NGSISink is where the events are consumed in a batch-like approach. This is done in the
process() method inherited from
AbstractSink, which is overwritten.
Such events processing is done by opening a Flume transaction and reading events as specified in the
batch_size parameter (if no enough events are available, the accumulation ends when the
batch_timeout is reached). For each event read, the transaction is committed. Once the accumulations ends the transaction is closed.
Please notice that the
process() method handles all the possible errors that may occur during a Flume transaction by catching exceptions. There exists a collection of Cygnus-related exceptions whose usage is mandatory located at
Once finished, accumulation results in a
NGSIBatch object, which internally holds sub-batches per each notified/grouped destination (
grouped-destinations headers in the Flume event objects are inspected to created the sub-batches, depending on the configured
enable_grouping value). Information within this
NGSIBatch object is the one the specific implementation of the new sink must persist.
Specific persistence logic is implemented by overwriting the only abstract method within
abstract void persistBatch(NGSIBatch) throws Exception;
CygnusSink the following counters are already available for retrieving statistics of any sink extending
- Number of processed events, i.e. the number of events taken from the channel and accumulated in a batch for persistence.
- Number of persisted events, i.e. the number of events within batches finally written/inserted/added in the final storage.
configure(Context) method of
NGSISink can be extended with specific configuration parameters reading (and defaulting, when required).
We include a list of fields that are usually persisted in Cygnus sinks:
- The reception time of the notification in miliseconds.
- The reception time of the notification in human-readable format.
- The notified/grouped FIWARE service path.
- The entity ID.
- The entity type.
- The attributes and the attribute’s metadata.
Regarding the attributes and their metadata, you may choose between two options (or both of them, by means of a switching configuration parameter):
- row format, i.e. a write/insertion/upsert per attribute and metadata.
- column format, i.e. a single write/insertion/upsert containing all the attributes and their metadata.
It is worth to briefly comment how the specific data structures should be created.
Typically, the notified service (which defines a client/tenant) should map to the storage element in charge of defining namespaces per user. For instance, in MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB and STH, the service maps to a specific database where permissions can be defined at user level. While in CKAN, the service maps to an organization. In other cases, the mapping is not so evident, as in HDFS, where the service maps into a folder under
hdfs://user/. Or it is totally impossible to fit, as is the case of DynamoDB or Kafka, where the service can only be added as part of the persistence element name (table and topic, respectively).
Regarding the notified service path, it is usually included as a prefix of the destination name (file, table, resource, collection, topic) where the data is really written. This is the case of all the sinks except HDFS and CKAN. HDFS maps the service path as a subfolder under
hdfs://user/service, and CKAN maps the service path as a package.
Of special interest is the root service path (
/). In this case, the service path should not be considered when prefixing destination name (because it is used to be a forbidden character).
Finally, in order to differentiate among all the entities, the concatenation of entity ID and type should be used as the default destination name (unless a grouping rule is used to overwrite this default behavior).
Sometimes all the necessary logic to persist the notified context data cannot be coded in the
persist abstract method. In this case, you may want to create a backend class or set of classes wrapping the detailed interactions with the final backend. Nevertheless, these classes should not be located at
cygnus-ngsi but at
New sink classes must be called
NGSI<technology>Sink, being technology the name of the persistence backend. Examples are the already existent sinks
Regarding the new sink class location, it must be:
As already explained, backends must be located at: